Indian Literature

Indian Literature

Indian literature comprises of religious Sanskrit scripts as well as literature in regional languages. Since ancient times the religious knowledge in Sanskrit has been transferred orally through generations. Here in this article, we will summarize the work different sages, poets, philosophers in Sanskrit as well as regional languages.

*Vedic Literature

Vedic literature comprises of four Vedas, Upanishads and other Sanskrit literature.

Rig-Veda: Rig-Veda is the oldest of four Vedas consisting of 1028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns. It is mainly focused on the subject of life, death, creation and sacrifice.

Atharva Veda: It is mainly known for its focus on the treatment of different ailments, traditional Indian medicine and issues related to everyday life of a householder.  it is a collection of 730 hymns.

Yajur Veda: Yajurveda concentrates on rituals and sacrifices to be made in Yajna.

Sama Veda: It is the Veda of songs and ways of reciting the mantras. It consists of Hymns, Raga (musical notes) and Raginis.

Indian Literature

*Literature in Pali and Prakrit

The Buddhist and Jain religious books are mainly written in Pali and Prakrit.

*Literature in regional languages:

Tamil (Sangam) Literature:

The kingdom of Pandya called assemblies of poets and writers. These assemblies are known as Sangam and the literature produced in these assemblies is called Sangam Literature. Thiruvalluvar was a celebrated Tamil Philosopher best known for his work ‘Tirukkuṛaḷ’ a collection of couplets on ethics, political and economic matters, and love.

Kokasandisan and Bhasa Kautilya are the major works of Malayalam Literature in the medival period.

Kannada Literature: the Ratnatraya or the three gems of Kannada Literature are the three renowned poets Pampa, Ponna and Ranna,

Bengali and Odia literature:

Mangal Kavyas are the Hindu religious text of Bengali literature written in medieval period. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was the famous nationalist Bengali writer. Our national song Vande Mataram was an expert taken from his novel. Shankerdev composed devotional poetry in Assamese.

Gujarati, Rajasthani and Sindhi literature:

Gujarat was known for the Bhakti movement and this movement has influenced the Gujarati literature. The renowned saint Narsinh Mehta has composed devotional songs for Lord Krishna. Dingal and Pingal are the two main types of fictional writings in Rajasthani. Sant Mirabai’s devotional literature in Rajasthani is very famous. Sindhi literature is influenced by the culture of Rajasthan and Gujarat. One of the prominent writers of Sindhi literature was Dewan Kauramal.


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